Listing all reactants and products, photosynthesis can be described as:
6 CO2 + 12 H2O ? C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
But because water is both a reactant and a product, the equation can be simplified accounting for net water consumption, which is:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O ? C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy ? Glucose + Oxygen
What is PhotosyntesisPhotosyntesis definition came from the Greek word 'photo' which means "light" synthesis which means "putting together", so Photosytesis is a process of formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) and water ( H2O ) with the help of sunlight . Able to perform photosynthesis because plants have cells containing chlorophyll ( green substance ) . In the discovery of photosynthesis , sunlight energy absorbed by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy stored in the form of carbohydrates or other organic compounds .
Carbohydrates in plants is converted into proteins , fats , vitamins , or other compounds . These organic compounds in addition utilized by the plant itself , is also used by humans and herbivorous animals as a food ingredient . Photosynthesis involves many complex chemical reactions . Simply put , the chemical reactions that occur in the process of photosynthesis can be written as follows .
Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrophs, since they can create their own food. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Photosynthesis is vital for all aerobic life on Earth. In addition to maintaining normal levels of oxygen in the atmosphere, photosynthesis is the source of energy for nearly all life on earth, either directly, through primary production, or indirectly, as the ultimate source of the energy in their food, the exceptions being chemoautotrophs that live in rocks or around deep sea hydrothermal vents. The average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is immense, approximately 130 terawatts, which is about six times larger than the power consumption of human civilization. As well as energy, photosynthesis is also the source of the carbon in all the organic compounds within organisms' bodies. In all, photosynthetic organisms convert around 100?115 thousand million metric tons (i.e., 100?115 petagrams) of carbon into biomass per year.
Reactions of photosynthesis
In the equation , it can be seen that the terms of the process of photosynthesis takes place , which is as follows .
Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , is taken up by plants from the air freely through the stomata ( leaf mouth ) . Water , taken from the soil by the roots and transported to leaves via timber vessels ( xylem ) . Sunlight . Chlorophyll ( green substance ) , as the recipient of the energy of sunlight to carry out photosynthesis .
The results of photosynthesis in the form of glucose will be circulated throughout the plant body through filter vessels ( phloem ) are stored as food reserves , both stored in the roots , stems , leaves , and stored in the form of fruit . And the results of photosynthesis in the form of oxygen is released into the environment , and is used by animals and humans in the process of respiration .
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is influenced by factors both internal and external factors . Factors affecting photosynthesis is as follows .
The concentration of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) in the air , the higher the concentration of CO2 in the air , increasing the rate of photosynthesis .
Chlorophyll , the more the amount of chlorophyll in the leaf photosynthesis takes place more quickly . Chlorophyll formation requires sunlight . Sprouts are grown in the dark can not make chlorophyll perfectly . Sprouts are said to undergo etiolation , which is growing very fast (higher / longer than it should ) and the stems and leaves look pale colored because it contains chlorophyll . Age also affects the rate of leaf photosynthesis . The older the leaves , diminishing the ability to photosynthesize due to an overhaul of chlorophyll and reduced chloroplast function .
Light , the light intensity is reasonably necessary in order photosynthesis is efficient .
Water , water availability affect the rate of photosynthesis because water is the raw material in this process .
Temperature , generally the higher the temperature , the rate of photosynthesis will increase , and vice versa . However, if the temperature is too high , photosynthesis would stop because that play a role in photosynthesis enzimenzim damaged . Therefore, plants require optimum temperature ( not too low or too high ) so that photosynthesis is inefficient .
Events of photosynthesis is a gift and proof of the power of God Almighty . Imagine, carbon dioxide in the air can be tied so into food . In addition , the oxygen produced from the breakdown of water is something that is needed by living things .
Without photosynthesis there would be no real life because there is no food and also no oxygen . You certainly know that the food needed by living things to grow and flourish . Oxygen is also required in the process of respiration ( breathing ) to obtain energy , so that living things can move in everyday life .
Photosynthesis in Plants
In plants, photosynthesis occurs mainly within the leaves. Since photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, all of these substances must be obtained by or transported to the leaves. Carbon dioxide is obtained through tiny pores in plant leaves called stomata. Oxygen is also released through the stomata. Water is obtained by the plant through the roots and delivered to the leaves through vascular plant tissue systems. Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, a green pigment located in plant cell structures called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain several structures, each having specific functions:
- Outer and inner membranes: protective coverings that keep chloroplast structures enclosed.
- Stroma: dense fluid within the chloroplast. Site of conversion of carbon dioxide to sugar.
- Thylakoid: flattened sac-like membrane structures. Site of conversion of light energy to chemical energy.
- Grana: dense layered stacks of thylakoid sacs. Sites of conversion of light energy to chemical energy.
- Chlorophyll: a green pigment within the chloroplast. Absorbs light energy.